- What is UVC?
UV-C is one of the many electromagnetic frequencies emitted from the sun. Just like others of these forms, their properties are specific to the wavelength. To synthesize this frequency, a glass tube is emptied and refilled with argon at a level well below atmospheric pressure. A small amount of mercury is also added to it. When the mixture is energized (excited), it forms a bright electron plasma, which passes through the mercury vapor. When this plasma hits the mercury atoms, a mercury electron is released at a frequency that represents the mercury’s spectrum line, which is 253.7nm. The dominant emission in these lamps (greater than 90%) is UV-C energy. The frequency “C” of the electromagnetic UV family has antiseptic effects, among other effects. This situation was of great importance when Westinghouse commercialized the low-pressure “antiseptic” lamp mercury vapor lamp in the early 1930s. Its human value has made it successful around the world since then.
Is UV-C harmful?
When we are outside, we are exposed to parts of the UV spectrum. In general, excessive UV exposure can lead to negative effects depending on the wavelength, type and duration, and differences in UV response between individuals. Dec. Three basic wavelengths:
1) It contains the antiseptic wavelength of UV-C – 253.7nm and is used for air and water disinfection. Overexposure of humans causes temporary skin redness and severe eye irritation, but does not lead to permanent damage, skin cancer or cataracts. The risk of skin cancer is low in UV-C radiation (CIE 187-2010)
2) UV-B – is a narrower, but more dangerous UV band. Long-term exposure has been associated with skin cancer, skin aging, and cataracts (clouding of the lens of the eye).
3) UV-A – is more dominant in outdoor compared to the other two. It helps to tan our skin and is used in medicine to treat certain skin disorders. It is usually a harmless wavelength. UVA damages B and C collagen fibers and accelerates skin aging. Usually UVA is the least harmful; UVB contributes to DNA damage and cancer. It penetrates deeply; however, it does not cause sunburn. Since there is no redness (erythema), it cannot be measured on the SPF test. There is no clinical measurement of UVB blockade available; however, it is important that sunscreens block both UVA and UVB. UVC, on the other hand, penetrates superficially and has not been associated with long-term tissue effects.
• How does it affect microbes?
Microorganisms are simple organic structures that easily absorb the UV-C wavelength, thereby causing its photo decomposition (destruction). The DNA of a microbe (deoxyribonucleic acid) is first negatively affected due to its weak molecular bonds. He will suffer irreparable damage within one percent of a second. The subsequent loss of genetic instructions causes cell death and/or their inability to reproduce, making them harmless. Continuous exposure leads to uninterrupted deterioration, just like in the sun, but much faster.
• Does it work?
Yes, there are a lot of scientific and anecdotal references about the effectiveness of UV-C both in the literature and in field application reports. The most notable ones from government reports are NIOSH, OSHA, CDC, GSA, EPA. The science in the public forum comes from several institutions, such as the University of Cincinnati, the University of Tulsa, the University of Colorado and McGill University (Canada). PLUS and Battelle are two laboratories that conduct independent tests and give very positive results. The lists created by prestigious field studies are too many to tell. UV-C is used worldwide; In the USA, its use is higher per capita compared to other countries. Most of this extensive use is for sewage treatment in the disinfection of drinking water and dirty water treatment.
• What does UV “C” or UV “GI” mean?
The letters “UV” represent the spectrum of the magnetic wavelength known as ultraviolet light. This spectrum is more commonly divided into four categories: Vacuum, Short Wave, Medium Wave and Long Wave, or VU-V, UV-C, UV-B and UV-A. UV-C is the most germicidal frequency, and the term UVGI, while referring directly to UV-C, means “Ultraviolet Antiseptic Irradiation” as used by Federal Agencies such as OSHA, NIOSH, GSA, EPA and CDC.
• Do UV-C lamps produce ozone?
No; but UV-C provides exceptional air conditioning, just as the sun does in outdoor environments. UV-C luminaires are an additional air conditioning component to other system parts. October 19, 2016. These include filters, coil, heating core, fan, shock absorbers, humidifiers, etc. Dec. can be found. All of them are designed to provide a special function on the processing of air for the areas used.
* Does UV-C replace filters?
No, a UV-C fixture is an additional air conditioning component to other system Octobers. Among them are coil, heating core, fan, shock absorbers, humidifiers, filters, Decals, etc. can be found. All of them are designed to serve some kind of function in the air conditioner; the UV-C fixture is just one of these components.
• Do air filters clean microorganisms?
At varying levels depending on their nominal efficiency, yes. Keep in mind that for an expected infectious disease application, attention should be paid to the type, effectiveness and location of a filter. The purpose of filters for microorganisms is to achieve a reduction in the total number of live microbes per “unit volume of air” downstream. Fortunately, some filters can also be used with UV-C within a so-called “catch and kill” approach. With the proper filter, UV-C can kill and/or decompose what the filter captures. Therefore, the effect of filters in terms of a particular microbe and its products can be an integral part of the concentration obtained in a vacuum. In addition, it should be remembered that viruses can be as small as 0.02 microns, so the target organism should be known in order to provide a predictable result. In addition, a filter system cannot reduce microbial growth on surfaces, drainage pans or plenum and ductwork, UV-C October is the preferred tool here.
• How do you size UV-C applications?
For indoor air quality, improved heat transfer, reduced maintenance and odor, placing lamp row centerlines on 30-45 inch centerlines is an approach that has been used for more than a decade. The most reputable manufacturers have software that can size such installations and more. Consult only one of these reputable manufacturers when sizing infectious disease agent applications.
• Is it difficult to install UV-C?
It’s not difficult at all. In addition to simple installation instructions, layout drawings filled with all the necessary dimensional characteristics are also provided. In many cases, product designs are emerging that allow UV-C to be installed in air handling units in less than an hour! This includes fan heater units, unitary and roof units, which are the most difficult systems to keep clean Jul. Consult with a reputable factory and get them involved in any infectious disease application.
Where is it installed?
UV luminaires are specially designed for installation in HVACR systems and applications. Microbial infestations are common in existing equipment. Humidity occurs intermittently or continuously everywhere. This situation and its final solution can be confirmed by simple tests. The best results are achieved when the UV-C is positioned close to the disturbing surface. The armature is usually installed from 6 to 50 inches from the surface where the beam is to be applied. In this way, the application definitely reduces and eliminates surface and water-borne pollution.
• Do you clean the surfaces first?
The results are obviously more striking when you don’t do this, but everything becomes relevant over time. UV-C breaks down organic material within a time frame specific to the type and amount being eliminated, and usually within a surface. But it usually does this in 180 days or less. If the transmitters are known, UV
Their resources can help you make this decision. Usually, the cleaning process is done first to speed up the cleaning process. In cases where transmission is unknown, it is wise to apply radiation to those infected for at least 30 days and wear a full apron before dismemberment.
• How do you know if it works?
There are several ways to show, sample or measure the many things that are happening. One of them is to use a contact plate containing malt agar. Before UV-C is installed, the surface is slightly contacted with the plate. It is then left to incubate for about 96 hours. After the UV-C is installed, the procedure is performed again in the same place. Usually, there is a decrease in organism proliferation by more than 98%. Samples can be taken from the drainage pan and water in a similar way, using a different breeding medium for bacteria. Some of the other ways are:
1) A noticeable decrease in mold is observed in a very short period of time.
2) Coil pressure drop has been shown to be more than 10% in less than 30 days (depending on surface cleanliness and water activity), of course, there is usually also a corresponding increase in system airflow and capacity.
3) The drain pans and the drain pan water become significantly cleaner.Jul.
4) Insulation, etc. Jul, all the field line surfaces start to look cleaner.
5) Most of the odors caused by ray-seen contamination disappear.
6) It has been documented that many indoor air quality complaints have decreased.
• Should UV-C products be on the UL List?
Yes For complete safety, UVGI luminaires must be tested and listed as UL/C-UL in accordance with the Category Code ABQK (Accessories, Air Duct Top), UL Standards 153, 1598 and 1995 respectively.
• What kind of warranty should I expect?
The luminaires are guaranteed for 3 years and the lamps for 1 year.
• What are the temperature, humidity and speed limits?
Not all UV-C products meet UL specifications, including drip-resistant construction and proper electronic function within the parameters of 1-77°C found in HVAC equipment. Essentially, UV Sources products have no HVAC limits. The additional parameters met are 99%R October and 1000 fpm respectively; however, if other operational difficulties are foreseen, contact the factory.
• How are the lamps used destroyed?
In the current situation, most users dispose of fluorescent lamps like any glass garbage! Large fluorescent lamp users follow the EPA and status guidelines, and UV-C lamps are subject to the same guidelines. If you have an applied fluorescent lamp destruction program, UV-C lamps are covered by the same program.
• Should UV-C lamps be turned with a fan?
Taking everything into account, the best efficiency is obtained by constantly running these lamps. Also, considering the lamp and power supply performance and their service life, they work better and longer when they work continuously. Therefore, wherever possible, run them constantly.
• When do you change the lamps?
For infectious disease applications, the change must be made in accordance with factory specifications and/or recommendations, using a yield measuring device such as a radiometer. Large installations for indoor air quality or mold control may benefit from a radiometer to prevent early changes. It is common to replace lamps when their efficiency decreases by 20%, this usually happens in about 12-15 months. Therefore, for installations without radiometers, reinstall the lamp at least once a year and replace the broken ones as soon as possible.
Do the lamps need to be cleaned?
UV Sources lamps usually break down common organic debris that can accumulate on the tube surface, so periodic cleaning is usually not necessary.
• How to clean the lamps when necessary?
If a lamp has been exposed to any hard water, high levels of moist organic debris, or any type of oil (e.g. body oil), cleaning may be required. Vinegar can be used for mineral deposits; Windex for moist organic residues, and a lint-free cloth can be used for pure alcohol and oil. Commonly available cleaners will work provided that they do not leave any residue.
• What happens if microbes attach to dust particles?
In HVAC systems, microbes that need to be taken care of are located on a surface or in the air. UV-C usually breaks down simple organic substances, such as dust particles on the surface, to reveal and destroy target microbes. Microbes in the air are revealed in at least two ways. A large part of the dust is cleaned by the filter system before the microbe enters the UV-C cavity. And/or dust particles roll or will roll in the future to lead to sufficient UV-C energy absorption, allowing for almost 360-degree global exposure. In infectious disease-specific installations, air filters with an excess ASHRAE Dust Point efficiency greater than 85% should be used, so not only will dust be minimal, but many microbes will not pass through.
• What is Deactivation(Inactivation)?
UV-C energy doses for mold and bacteria may not cause cell death immediately, but the microbe can be “deactivated”. What is meant by this is that although some biological activities are still present, cell replication is impossible and the microbe can no longer live. Simply put, the germ in question cannot multiply and becomes harmless! Moreover, over time, small doses of UV-C have been shown to accelerate cell death. Since viral particles are not a life form, deactivation is the only option to get rid of the harm that they create ourselves.
If I can’t see UV-C energy, what am I seeing?
About 90% of the energy produced by a UV-C lamp is actually UV-C energy. The rest is visible light (blue tint) and a small amount of infrared (heat). Considering the brightness of UV-C lamps,the amount of 3-4% appearance light gives an idea of the amount of UV-C energy produced by the lamp.
• If I see blue, does it mean the lamp is working?
This does not have to be the case; the blue color comes from an inert gas (soygas, usually argon) that does not produce UV-C in the lamp. The lamp can burn (blue), but it cannot produce much if there is UV-C energy. This will be a weak indicator.
• Does UV-C kill dust mites?
There is no evidence to suggest that the appropriate UV-C dose for a particular germ killing will have an effect on dust mites. Too high UV-C energy or long-term exposure to UV-C can disrupt some of the biological functions of mites, causing them to die. However, there is also no evidence that dust mites live in the air conditioning duct.
• If I am using anti-microbial treated filters, do I need UV-C?
Some of the microbes caught in the anti-microbial treated filters actually die. However, there is also much more evidence and independent testing that shows that microbes caught by untreated filters also die! In both cases, mold is an exception in damp filters, which are characterized by an identifiable odor. But none of this eliminates the evidence that has been obtained for years that microbial counts are always lower downstream of any filter compared to upstream. Filters do not affect the growth of microorganisms on other surfaces and drainage pans in any way, all of which eventually leads to the accumulation of organic substances. Regarding this last and more important issue, UV-C is the only non-chemical form of continuous source control.
• Can UV-C save energy?
Yes, in literally thousands of controlled tests, the accumulation of organic material on the coils was eliminated with UV-C to ensure the following two final results: 1. The pressure drop along a coil decreases in order to increase air flow. 2. The increase in the difference between the Decaying air and the wet lamp temperature. Therefore, energy savings occur through increased heat absorption (transfer), reduced air horsepower (or increased air volume) and/or reduced operating time, including the concentrator. These decreases and increases are always manifested in some kind of energy saving studies.
• Do bio-films affect coil performance?
The published articles document losses of up to 30% in surface heat exchange efficiency caused by the accumulation of organic materials. Also, a high amount of coil cleaning compounds and manufacturers of “spare coils” tend to prove the prevalence of the problem. Brian Krafthefer from Honeywell has the best publications in this field.
• Well, what if I can’t see mold on a coil?
Even a very small appearance of mold requires millions of these microorganisms per square inch, and most of them are nutrient mold, which is usually always considered to be a simple dirt. Also, higher amounts of this material may be inside the coil instead of the visible surface. In fact, some of the more pronounced indoor air quality problems have occurred in dry climates where visible dirt or microbial activity is not evident.
• Can UV-C be installed on roofs or outdoor units in the form of a package?
NEMA-style fixtures using single-ended lamps are specially designed for roofs and other outdoor systems, are surprisingly affordable and easy to install.
• Can UVC be installed on small units?
Yes, unit fans, heat pumps and fan heater units, etc. They are important candidates for UV-C. Because they are generally the dirtiest, most inefficient and most problematic systems available in terms of indoor air quality. Pricing has been on the decline recently.
• Can UV-C kill 100% of all microorganisms in the air?
Usually no, but it is more important to have a large number of reductions caused by the use of UV-C. The CDC (U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) is a good example that UV-C is the most perfect and sometimes the only option for this job. An equally important point is this: UV-C, unlike other methods, leaves nothing behind!
Is UV-C expensive?
CFM: Cubic Feet per Minute (cubic length per minute) is a unit of measurement that indicates the speed of air flow. Thus, the unit of measurement is The CFM measurement is usually used for fans, and the higher this value, the greater the amount of air that the fan will transfer. CFM high fans cool down better.Since it is less than $ 0.04 per CFM, it is no longer. Therefore, the costs of lost heat exchange efficiency; air horsepower, surface cleaning and drainage pan tablets already exceed this cost. However; routine labor, downtime, complaint service and most importantly absenteeism and lawsuits are excluded. Lost work, play and friendship; even the channel cleaning and system replacement costs are not taken into account. Replacement lamps are still much less.
• How can a homeowner know when to change the lamps?
There is currently no correct or cost-effective way, so the industry standard for re-installing lamps is one year. The best month to get the lamp that works best in summer is April.
• Why have we heard so much about bioaerosols?
Because it is an important component of poor indoor air quality. The scientific researcher who popularized the word “bioaerosol” is Dr. She is Harriet Burge. He believed that bioaerosols accounted for a larger part of the indoor air quality problem than previously thought, and this belief continues. The fact that he is right both in the past and now is one of the reasons for the popularity of UV-C.
• Are bioerosols a bigger problem now?
Undoubtedly it is, and there are many reasons for this. We are finding more microbial activity in an HVAC system today compared to previous years. Some of the reasons for this are related to our operational and maintenance procedures. For example, timed operation (the air conditioning system turns off – to conserve energy) increases microbial proliferation. This is 8-12 hours, and higher surface and liquid temperatures are reached during weekend closures. These warmer but still moist coils and drain pans are perfect for microbial forms. In addition, these areas are not cleaned October as often as they once were. When they are cleaned frequently; remember that chlorinated compounds are prohibited, so their modern substitutes are mostly inactive ingredients, and when you do not use them, the result is food mold! You can see that the problem is increasing in front of your eyes.
• At what voltages and frequencies can UV-C Luminaires be used?
In UV-C Luminaires, electronic ballast is usually used to operate UV-C fluorescence. The operating voltage December of the ballast is 220-240VAC and the frequency is 50/60 Hz.